## Mathematics

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**Grades 9 and 10**

Grades 9 and 10 are critical years as the “big ideas” of math are developed. It is really important that students are in the right place. While the curriculum is very similar when comparing the Applied and Academic streams, the method of delivery is vastly different. In Applied, the emphasis is on learning concepts through real-life applications while in Academic there is a balance between real-life applications and more abstract and algebraically intensive work. Our focus areas in Grades 9 and 10 are:

- Developing our students’ skills as analytical thinkers and clear communicators;
- Understanding the connections between the three “languages” of math (tables, graphs and algebra); and building a strong foundation in everyday life math (estimating, decimals and percent, ratio and proportion).

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**Grades 11 and 12**

There is a shift in our focus moving from Grades 9 and 10 and into Grades 11 and 12. While developing our students’ capacity to think and communicate is still a cornerstone of our programs, there is an increased emphasis placed on getting students ready for their destination beyond high school. Our focus areas in Grades 11 and 12 are:

- To prepare students in the COLLEGE stream for life after high school through the mathematical analysis of personal finance, data management/statistics, mathematical modeling and applied measurement and geometry;
- To prepare students in the WORKPLACE stream for life after high school through teaching students to make good financial decisions at home and in the workplace (e.g. shopping for the “best buy”, the costs of leasing a car, investing in mutual funds, how credit cards work, measurement in the trades, managing data);
- To prepare students in the UNIVERSITY stream for life after high school. For those pursuing a math intensive program (e.g. engineering), a rigorous foundation in calculus, geometry and discrete math; and for those pursuing a program with less math intensive needs (e.g. business, psychology, life science) the tools to perform sophisticated mathematical modeling and data management/statistics.

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**Technology **

Providing our graduates with transferable skills in technology (e.g. using spreadsheets) has become not only important but a “must-do” in a world that has become increasingly technology driven. The Moira Math Department recognizes this and has embraced technology as both a tool to help our students learn math and as a tool they can use in their days after graduation. Expect to be using the following technology in math at Moira:

Extensive use of the Texas Instruments series of graphing calculators;

Data collection devices such as motion detectors and temperature probes; and Desktop computer software such as the WinPlot™ mathematical modeling package, the Fathom™ data management program and Geometers Sketchpad™ dynamic geometry software in our new math/technology dedicated computer lab.

## Grade 9

## MPM1D1 Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9 (Academic)

This course enables students to develop understanding of mathematical concepts related to algebra, analytic geometry, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will investigate relationships, which they will then generalize as equations of lines, and will determine the connections between different representations of a relationship. They will also explore relationships that emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multistep problems.

## MFM1P1 Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 9 (Applied)

This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to introductory algebra, proportional reasoning, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will investigate real-life examples to develop various representations of linear relationships, and will determine the connections between the representations. They will also explore certain relationships that emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional shapes. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking. This course is recommended for students who intend to continue at College or Workplace levels.

## MAT1L1 Mathematics, Grade 9 (Locally Developed)

This course emphasizes further development of mathematical knowledge and skills to prepare students for success in their everyday lives, in the workplace, in the Grade 10 Essentials course, and in the Mathematics Grade 11 and Grade 12 Workplace Preparation courses. The course is organized by three strands related to money sense, measurement, and proportional reasoning. In all strands, the focus is on developing and consolidating key foundational mathematical concepts and skills by solving authentic, everyday problems. Students have opportunities to further develop their mathematical literacy and problem-solving skills and to continue developing their skills in reading, writing, and oral language through relevant and practical math activities. Prerequisite: Students must be recommended for this course by their elementary school.

## Grade 10

## MPM2D1 Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10 (Academic)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of relationships and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will explore quadratic relationships and their applications; solve and apply linear systems; verify properties of geometric figures using analytic geometry; and investigate the trigonometry of right and acute triangles. Students will reason mathematically as they solve multistep problems and communicate their thinking.

Prerequisite: Grade 9, Principles of Mathematics, Academic

## MFM2P1 Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10 (Applied)

This course enables students to consolidate their understanding of relationships and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will develop and graph equations in analytic geometry; solve and apply linear systems, using real-life examples; and explore and interpret graphs of quadratic relationships. Students will investigate similar triangles, the trigonometry of right-angled triangles, and the measurement of three-dimensional objects. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

Prerequisite: Grade 9, Principles of Mathematics, Academic OR Foundations of Mathematics, Applied

## MAT2L1 Mathematics, Grade 10 (Locally Developed)

This course emphasizes the extension of mathematical knowledge and skills to prepare students for success in their everyday lives, in the workplace, and in the Mathematics Grade 11 and Grade 12 Workplace Preparation courses. The course is organized by three strands related to money sense, measurement, and proportional reasoning. In all strands, the focus is on strengthening and extending key foundational mathematical concepts and skills by solving authentic, everyday problems. Students have opportunities to extend their mathematical literacy and problem-solving skills and to continue developing their skills in reading, writing, and oral language through relevant and practical math activities.

Prerequisite: MAT1L - Mathematics, Grade 9 (Essential).

## Grade 11

## MCR3U1 Functions, Grade 11 (University)

This course introduces the mathematical concept of function by extending students' experiences with linear and quadratic relations. Students will investigate properties of discrete and continuous functions, including trigonometric and exponential functions; represent functions numerically, algebraically, and graphically; solve problems involving applications of functions; and develop facility in simplifying polynomial and rational expressions. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic

## MCF3M1 Functions and Applications, Grade 11 (University/College)

This course introduces basic features of the function by extending students' experiences with quadratic relations. It focuses on quadratic, trigonometric, and exponential functions and their use in modelling real-world situations. Students will represent functions numerically, graphically and algebraically; simplify expressions; solve equations; and solve problems relating to financial and trigonometric applications. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

Prerequisite: Grade 10 Principles of Mathematics, Academic, Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied

## MBF3C1 Foundations for College Mathematics, Grade 11 (College)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of mathematics as a problem solving tool in the real world. Students will extend their understanding of quadratic relations; investigate situations involving exponential growth; solve problems involving compound interest; solve financial problems connected with vehicle ownership; develop their ability to reason by collecting, analyzing, and evaluating data involving one variable; connect probability and statistics; and solve problems in geometry and trigonometry. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

Prerequisite: Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied

## MEL3E1 Mathematics for Work and Everyday Life, Grade 11 (Workplace)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of mathematics as it is applied in the workplace and daily life. Students will solve problems associated with earning money, paying taxes, and making purchases; apply calculations of simple and compound interest in saving, investing, and borrowing; and calculate the costs of transportation and travel in a variety of situations. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9, Academic, or Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 9, Applied, or a ministry-approved locally developed Grade 10 Mathematics course

## Grade 12

## MDM4U1 Mathematics of Data Management, Grade 12 (University)

This course broadens students’ understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating project that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest.

Prerequisite: Functions and Applications, Grade 11, University/ College, or Functions, Grade 11, University

## MHF4U1 Advanced Functions, Grade 12 (University)

This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.

Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Mathematics for College Technology, Grade 12, College Preparation

## MCV4U1 Calculus and Vectors, Grade 12 (University)

This course builds on students’ previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and algebraic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three-dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modeling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course.

Prerequisite: Advanced Functions, University

## MAP4C1 Foundations for College Mathematics, Grade 12 (College)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of real-world applications of mathematics. Students will analyze data using statistical methods; solve problems involving applications of geometry and trigonometry; solve financial problems connected with annuities, budgets, and renting or owning accommodation; simplify expressions; and solve equations. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems. This course prepares students for college programs in areas such as business, health sciences, and human services, and for certain skilled trades.

Prerequisite: Foundations for College Mathematics, Grade 11, College

## MCT4C1 Mathematics For College Technology , Grade 12 (College)

This course enables students to extend their knowledge of functions. Students will investigate and apply properties of polynomial, exponential, and trigonometric functions; continue to represent functions numerically, graphically, and algebraically; develop facility in simplifying expressions and solving equations; and solve problems that address applications of algebra, trigonometry, vectors, and geometry. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems. This course prepares students for a variety of college technology programs.

Prerequisite: Functions and Applications, Grade 11, University/ College

## MEL4E1 Mathematics for Work and Everyday Life, Grade 12 (Workplace)

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of mathematics as it is applied in the workplace and daily life. Students will investigate questions involving the use of statistics; apply the concept of probability to solve problems involving familiar situations; investigate accommodation costs, create household budgets, and prepare a personal income tax return; use proportional reasoning; estimate and measure; and apply geometric concepts to create designs. Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.

Prerequisite: Mathematics for Work and Everyday Life, Grade 11, Workplace